This autumn was unfavorable for Kazakh peasants. Rain in the first half of September dragged on the cleaning, the ripe bread stood for a long time in the field, which led to a strong shabby and large losses. However, despite all the difficulties, the agriculture coped with the natural wharf and received a good harvest, writes the correspondent of KazakhZerno.kz.
As of October 10, 96.1% of the harvesting area was threshed in Kazakhstan. 17 million 909 thousand tons of grain were grinded with an average yield of 12.2 centners per hectare.
Let us recall that last season the yield was significantly higher, 14.4 c / ha. It is all about the weather, because the current agrarian season has already started not very well. Specialists count its start from the end of the harvesting season of the previous year, when the accumulation of productive moisture begins in the soil.
From September 2018 to May 2019, every month there was a shortage of precipitation – they did not reach the average multi-year standards, – Damir Kaldybaev, director of the Karabalyk agricultural experimental station (Kostanay region) said. – AS a result, by the beginning of sowing we had a moisture reserve of 25% less than the norm.
Many farms decided to move the beginning of the sowing somewhat earlier in order to catch the moisture until it evaporated from the fields. The same was done in the Karabalyk storage system, where two days earlier than usual – on May 12 – came out in the field. The weather in May was favorable throughout Kazakhstan, so by the end of the month the peasants managed to complete the spring harvest time.
In our farm, the area of the sowing was 9200 hectares, – Damir Kaldybaev said. – From this wheat 6200 ha, barley 1200 ha, flax 820 ha, peas 200 ha. In addition, gradually annual herbs, oats and rape.
It is important that in this season Karabalyk SHOS began to implement its strategy on varietal change. Within the framework of the program, the old varieties will be replaced by new breeding for several years. First, it is soft wheat “Aina”, “Fantasy” and firm “Asanali 20”. A new variety of barley “Velikan” and “Medikum 18” was also planted.
As a result, while last year new varieties occupied 8% of the area, in the current one there are already 25. In the next few years there will be a full variety bearing, with the exception of the early wheat “Kazakhstan”, the replacement of which breeders have not yet been able to create. This wheat is still producing good results, and scientists are continuing to work on the alternative.
Plus, from next year we will increase the area under the variety “Severyanochka”, – Damir Kaldybaev noted. “It, as well as “Aina” and “Fantasy”, has drought-resistance, plasticity, high productivity. They are also resistant to disease – their main “chip,” which is highly attractive to farmers.
All the positive qualities of the new varieties were able to demonstrate this season with its harsh conditions. During the summer, precipitation fell only several times, and not all – in the necessary phases of plant development. The most affected were those farms where moisture fell during the period of tithing – each plant released several shoots, which later turned out to have nothing to eat because of the drought. As a result, the plant lost valuable resources to waste.
Karabalyk SHOS in this sense was lucky – in the phase of the tithing, there was no precipitation. At first, it upset local agronomists. However, when it became clear how difficult the season was developing, the advantage became clear. Nevertheless, the rains fell in early July and fell on the stage of going to the tube. This is a very energy-intensive process for the plant, which takes up to 40% of all productive moisture. In addition, in August, once again, the rains fell in the pouring phase, which allowed to form a full-length bell.
In July three weeks, there was the worst heat, and we feared that it would lead to empty wheatears, – Damir Kaldybaev noted. – After All, then there was flowering and pollination, and the pollen was very much dried. But it also played a role that we had planting before. All of this has led to a good harvest.
By the way, the new varieties showed themselves very well. “Aina” on the steam predecessor gave 37.3 centners per hectare. Another new variety, Fantasia also showed a very good result – 29 c/ha. The average harvest of Karabalyk storage system for grain crops was 18 c / ha. This is a good thing for this year.
We were pulled out by new varieties, “Aina” and “Fantasy”, – Damir Kaldybaev noted. – By the way, we sowed them not only in our own country, control fields were still in several districts of Kostanay region, as well as in Akmola. And everywhere the indicators are very good.
Selective cleaning began in the middle of August, but mass cleaning began only in the last days of summer. Then nature presented another unpleasant surprise to the peasants – in early September, the rains were charged for two weeks. Agriculture used every calm to still go out in the field, but only September 13 – 14 could return to the cleaning. After that, the weather remained stable, and in the first decade most of the farms finished cleaning. It would seem that there would be no more unpleasant surprises. However, they surfaced after grain was started to be analyzed.
It turned out that in those two weeks, while the already ripe bread was standing in the field under the rain, the grain managed to turn over. High night temperatures played a role. Dried wheat automatically means a decrease in the quality of the food grain to the level of fodder, since such grain is no longer on flour. Therefore, all buyers now pay attention to such an indicator as the number of drops. In the thinning grain, it is low. Prices for such wheat are 30 per cent lower than food.
Grain is a very sad fact for the industry, no less severe than drought or abnormally strong winds, – Damir Kaldybaev noted. – There is a lot of such grain in Kazakhstan and Russia this season, by the way, too. We talked with many colleagues from different regions of the country. Many complain that the number of drops from 60 to 110 results. Moreover, there should be more than 200. The main thing is that such grain is no longer suitable for seeds, since it has lost germination. This will result in many households that have independently formed the seed fund having to buy seeds for future planting on the side. Naturally, increased demand will lead to higher prices. We see that our neighbors, in the Kurgan region of the Russian Federation, already now the ton of seeds has grown to 115 thousand tenge, in terms of ruble. While in the spring, it was much lower. We have not yet determined what will happen in Kazakhstan – we have not yet determined the prices for seeds. However, it is clear that there will also be growth. We were also concerned about the quality of our grain, but the measures showed that we had everything right. Therefore, our seeds will be air-conditioned, with good germinating.
In Kazakhstan’s arid climate, the problem of the broken grain arises infrequently. However, if autumn does fall rainy, precedents happen.
Therefore, those farms that are not lucky, the seed fund must necessarily change. Now wheat should be given to be lying, and then to carry out analysis, to check for germination. However, the grain that has broken out will be visible. In addition, if necessary, buy quality seeds to keep up with the harvest next season. We cannot wait for spring, we need to prepare already from autumn. The more expensive the seeds will be the closer to the seed. By the way, experts advise to give preference to varieties of local selection. This season, with its harsh conditions, has shown the advantage of the regionalized plants – they are less soldered and better tolerated drought.